CONTACT US
CONTACT US
CONTACT US

PANCREAS PROBLEMS (ATROPHY, CALCULUS, CIRRHOSIS, FIBROSIS)

UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM

The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach and next to the small intestine. The pancreas does two main things: It releases powerful digestive enzymes into the small intestine to aid the digestion of food and it releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. These hormones help the body control how it uses food for energy.

There are a variety of disorders of the pancreas including acute and chronic pancreatitis, hereditary pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic atrophy.

Cystic fibrosis affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The organ primarily affected is the pancreas, which normally secretes substances that aid digestion and help control blood-glucose levels.

As a result of the abnormal electrolyte transport system in the cells, the secretions from the pancreas become thick and can lead to obstruction of the ducts of the pancreas. This obstruction may cause a decrease in the secretion of enzymes from the pancreas that normally helps to digest food.

Pancreatic atrophy is the irreversible degeneration of the pancreas that is often associated with chronic pancreatitis. This condition involves the inflammation of the pancreas and a main cause for this is alcoholism.

UNDERSTANDING WHO SUFFERS

In the United States, the most common pancreatic condition is pancreatitis caused by gallstones, chronic alcohol consumption, hereditary conditions, trauma, medications, infections, electrolyte abnormalities, high lipid levels, hormonal abnormalities, or potentially other unknown causes.

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease characterized by an abnormality in the glands that produce sweat and mucus. There are about 30,000 people in the U.S. who are affected with cystic fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis occurs mainly in Caucasians of northern European ancestry, although African-Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans may have the disease as well. Approximately 1 in 31 people in the U.S. are carriers of the cystic fibrosis gene.
The problems with the pancreas can become so severe that some of the cells in the pancreas are destroyed. This may lead to glucose intolerance and insulin-dependent diabetes. About 35% of cystic fibrosis patients develop this type of diabetes in their 20s and about 40% develop the disease after 30 years of age.

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in men and the fifth in women. It accounts for more than 37,000 new cases per year in the United States. Cancer of the pancreas is resistant to many standard treatments including chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

The main cause for pancreatic atrophy is alcoholism. Some other causes are autoimmune disease, genetic mutations associated with cystic fibrosis and a family history of pancreatitis.

POTENTIAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Alike other pancreatic conditions like acute and chronic pancreatitis symptoms of pancreatic disorders may include:

  • Upper abdominal pain, although sometimes asymptomatic
  • Pain may spread to the back, become worse with eating or drinking, and become constant and disabling.
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Oily or fatty stools
  • Clay-colored or pale stools
  • Weight loss – even in the case of regular appetite and eating habits are normal.
  • Malnutrition as the body does not secrete enough pancreatic enzymes to digest food, so nutrients are not absorbed normally, leading to malnutrition.
  • Diabetes mellitus, due to slow destruction of the pancreas in latter stages of the disease
  • In cases of Cancer of the – typical presentation is painless jaundice, a yellowish skin discoloration with no other symptoms.
  • In cases of pancreatic atrophy upper abdominal pain, unexplained weight loss and stool that appears greasy can be present. Oily stool that may be light in color is due to foods not being digested properly due to the decrease in enzymes associated with chronic pancreatitis.
  • In cases of Cystic Fibrosis, due to the involvement with the GI tract symptoms can include
  • Bulky, greasy stools
  • Rectal prolapse. A condition in which the end part of the bowels comes out of the anus.
  • Delayed puberty
  • Fat in the stools
  • Stomach pain
  • Bloody diarrhea
EXAMINATIONS USUALLY REQUIRED

Pancreas conditions are tested by a multitude of methods depending on the underlining cause. After assessing the medical history, some of the following examination may be undertaken:

  • Physical examination
  • Blood tests (amylase or lipase) for digestive enzymes of the pancreas.
  • Radiography (x-ray exams)
  • Transabdominal ultrasound
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)
  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)
  • Computerized tomography (CT)

If pancreatic cancer is suspected:

  • Blood Tests {(Liver function test, CA19-9, Carcinogenic Antigen (CEA)}
  • Diagnostic Imaging Tests {Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)}
  • Biopsy

In cases where Cystic Fibrosis is suspected additional tests in addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, include a sweat test to measure the amount of sodium chloride (salt) present and other diagnostic procedures including:

  • Chemical tests
  • Chest X-rays
  • Lung function tests
  • Sputum cultures
  • Stool evaluations
PROPOSING TREATMENT AND WHY AIMIS

Surgery for Pancreatic Disorders

If your doctor recommends surgery for a disorder, you may be a candidate for a minimally invasive approach - da Vinci Surgery. AIMIS is an expert in Robotic Surgery for Robotic Assisted Distal Pancreatectomy, Pancreato-Splenectomy, Resection of the Pancreas Head-Whipple, Spleen preserving Pancreatectomy, Pancreatico-Jejunostomy and other minimal invasive procedures for the Pancreas involving the best American and International surgeons who are experts in the field including:

  • Chronic Pancreatitis ( Inflammation of the Pancreas) - Distal Pancreatectomy, Pancreato-Splenectomy, Resection of the Pancreas Head-Whipple, Spleen preserving Pancreatectomy, Pancreatico-Jejunostomy]
  • Cyst & Pseudocyst of Pancreas - Distal Pancreatectomy, Pancreato-Splenectomy, Resection of the Pancreas Head-Whipple, Spleen preserving Pancreatectomy, Pancreatico-Jejunostomy
  • Pancreas problems (Atrophy, Calculus, Cirrhosis, Fibrosis) - [Distal Pancreatectomy, Pancreato-Splenectomy, Resection of the Pancreas Head-Whipple, Spleen preserving Pancreatectomy, Pancreatico-Jejunostomy]

Explanation of the Different types of Surgery:

  • Distal Pancreatectomy: If the bottom half or tail of the pancreas is affected and needs to be removed, this is known as a distal pancreatectomy.
  • Whipple Pancreatectomy: During the Whipple procedure, the head of the pancreas, most of the duodenum (part of small intestine), gallbladder, part of bile duct, and nearby lymph nodes are removed.
  • Central Pancreatectomy: Performed when there is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor in what is called the neck of the pancreas.
  • Pancreatosplenectomy: Performed to surgically treat pancreatic disease of the tail and body. Distal pancreatectomy involves surgical resection of the body and tail of the pancreas to the left of the superior mesenteric–portal vein confluence, with splenectomy.
  • Spleen Preserving Pancreatectomy: Performed to surgically treat pancreatic disease of the tail and body. Distal pancreatectomy involves surgical resection of the body and tail of the pancreas to the left of the superior mesenteric–portal vein confluence, without splenectomy.
  • Pancreatic Resections: Performed to remove part of the pancreas, the gall bladder, some of the bile ducts and a piece of the smallbowel. Sometimes a portion of stomach is also removed. It is normally, although not always, performed for cancer of the pancreas or of other organs which surround the pancreas
  • Pancreatico-Jejunostomy: The operation involves creating a longitudinal incision along the pancreas while the main pancreatic duct is filleted open longitudinally from the head of the organ to its tail. The duct and pancreas are then attached to a loop of the small intestine (pancreaticojejunostomy), which is oversewn to the exposed pancreatic duct in order to allow its drainage. When used in the appropriate setting, pain from chronic pancreatitis can improve
  • Total Pancreatectomy: A total pancreatectomy is an operation to remove your entire pancreas.

Da Vinci Surgery uses state-of-the-art technology to assist doctors in performing a range of delicate operations for the pancreas and offers several potential benefits over traditional open and laparoscopic surgery, including:

  • Low rate of major complications
  • Low conversion rate to open surgery
  • Virtually scarless surgery
  • High patient satisfaction
  • Minimal pain
  • More precise removal of cancerous tissue
  • Less risk of converting to open surgery
  • Greater chance of saving the spleen (benign cases)
  • Reduced risk of blood loss
  • Shorter hospital stay

To see the procedures we undertake with Robotic Xi Surgery, please click here

GETTING MORE INFORMATION BEFORE MOVING FORWARD
YOU MAY HAVE QUESTIONS LIKE:
  • Can I get more information before I commit to this?
  • Can I get a second opinion from you before I commit to this?
  • How can I find out the cost before I have any obligation?
WHAT AIMIS CAN DO:

AIMIS will provide a full review, diagnosis and potential surgical options for your condition, after receiving the relevant examinations and information from you. They will also provide an estimate for your surgical procedure before you decide.

AIMIS’ mission is to the provision of “true” healthcare for those who require it. It provides world leading surgeons using state of the art procedures to optimize potential surgical outcomes, whilst taking care of all arrangements so as to allow concentration on recovery.

FURTHER INFO
TECHNOLOGIES
OUR SURGEONS
OUR FACILITIES
AFFORDABILITY

AIMIS provide competitive prices for state of the art procedures. We also work with a large range of Insurance companies where your policy allows you to have surgery abroad.

 

FURTHER INFORMATION ON THE PROBLEM:

Diagnosis of pancreatic problems is often difficult and treatments are therefore delayed because the organ is relatively inaccessible. There are no easy ways to see the pancreas directly without surgery, and available imaging studies are often inadequate. In addition to the acute form, there are hereditary and chronic forms of pancreatitis which can devastate a person over many years. Sufferers often endure pain and malnutrition, and are most likely left with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer.

Chronic pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that does not heal or improve—it gets worse over time and leads to permanent damage. Chronic pancreatitis eventually impairs a patient’s ability to digest food and make pancreatic hormones. Industrialized countries have estimated an annual incidence rate of 5-12/100,000 people who will develop chronic pancreatitis. The prevalence of chronic pancreatitis is 50/100,000 people. Chronic pancreatitis often develops in patients between the ages of 30 and 40, and is more common in men than women.

Onset of attacks Hereditary Pancreatitis (HP) typically occurs between within the first two decades of life, but can begin at any age. In the United States, it is estimated that at least 1,000 individuals are affected with hereditary pancreatitis.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimated that in 2013, there were 45,220 new cases of pancreatic cancer in the US. One of the major challenges associated with pancreatic cancer is that the condition often goes undetected for a long period of time because signs and symptoms seldom occur until a more advanced stage.

FURTHER INFORMATION ON INCREASED RISK GROUPS

Risk factors of acute pancreatitis include:

  • Gallstones
  • Heavy alcohol drinking

Acute pancreatitis may be the first sign of gallstones. Gallstones can block the pancreatic duct, which can cause acute pancreatitis.

Risk factors for chronic pancreatitis include:

  • Heavy alcohol drinking for a long time
  • Certain hereditary conditions, such as cystic fibrosis
  • Gallstones
  • Conditions such as high triglycerides and lupus

People with chronic pancreatitis are usually men between ages 30 and 40, but chronic pancreatitis also may occur in women.

Factors that may increase risk of pancreatic cancer include:

  • Age. The vast majority of cases of pancreatic cancer occur in individuals aged 65 years and older.
  • Race. Black men and women have a greater likelihood of developing pancreatic cancer.
  • Sex. Men are more likely to develop pancreatic cancer.
  • Excess alcohol. People who drink 9 or more alcoholic drinks every day are at increased risk for developing pancreatic cancer.
  • Cigarette smoking. Smokers are 2 to 3 times more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than nonsmokers. Smoking is the single greatest risk factor, associated with almost one-third of all cases of pancreatic cancer.
  • Diabetes. Multiple large studies have shown that people diagnosed with diabetes (abnormal glucose metabolism) are at significantly increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
  • Weight. Multiple large studies have shown that people who are obese, with a body mass index (BMI) 30 or greater, are at increased risk for developing pancreatic cancer (a large study showed that the risk was 47% greater compared to people who were not obese).
  • Diet. Diets high in animal fats and low in fruits and vegetables are more likely to develop pancreatic cancer. A large study has also shown that consumption of processed meat and red meat is associated with an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
  • Chemical exposure. Individuals working with petroleum agents such as gasoline and fuel oils are at increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
  • Bacteria. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that can infect the gut, and it is one of the most common gut infections in humans, affecting approximately one-third of the US population. H. pylori is well known to cause ulcers, but many studies are now linking it to the development of pancreatic cancer.
  • ABO blood type has also been shown to be associated with a risk of developing pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatic atrophy, the wasting away of the pancreas, occurs largely in those who are elderly, obese or have chronic pancreatitis.

FURTHER EXAMINATION THAT MAYBE REQUIRED OR REQUESTED

In some cases when the blood tests are not elevated and the diagnosis is still in question, abdominal imaging, such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, might be performed

Doctors may also use other tests, such as:

  • Pancreatic function test to find out if the pancreas is making the right amounts of digestive enzymes
  • Glucose tolerance test to measure damage to the cells in the pancreas that make insulin
WHY AIMIS FOR THIS SURGERY

AIMIS is an expert in Robotic Surgery for Robotic Assisted Distal Pancreatectomy, Pancreato-Splenectomy, Resection of the Pancreas Head-Whipple, Spleen preserving Pancreatectomy, Pancreatico-Jejunostomy and other minimal invasive procedures for the Pancreas involving the best American and International surgeons who are experts in the field

Da Vinci Surgery uses state-of-the-art technology to assist doctors in performing a range of delicate operations for the pancreas and offers several potential benefits over traditional open and laparoscopic surgery, including:

  • Low rate of major complications
  • Low conversion rate to open surgery
  • Virtually scarless surgery
  • High patient satisfaction
  • Minimal pain
  • More precise removal of cancerous tissue
  • Less risk of converting to open surgery
  • Greater chance of saving the spleen (benign cases)
  • Reduced risk of blood loss
  • Shorter hospital stay

Some procedures (for example Distal Pancreatectomy and Splenectomy) can be achieved through the belly button traditional single incision laparoscopy or da Vinci® Single-Site® Surgery. The da Vinci System features a magnified 3D high-definition vision system and flexible Single-Site instruments. These features enable your doctor to operate with enhanced vision and precision.

OTHER SERVICES PROVIDED BY AIMIS

In addition to its Innovative Healthcare, AIMIS provides seamless service along the way. From the start of your journey you'll know the best flights to take, where you'll be staying, what paperwork you will need. You will have a personal assistant assigned; from your pick up at the airport, to your accommodation, continuous assistance at your pre-consultation, through surgery and in your postsurgical care. Our Patients have said that they feel they have become "part of our family" and some even asked to stay a little longer! AIMIS is here to assist you in an all you requirements, allowing you to focus on your health and recovery.

FURTHER INFO
TECHNOLOGIES
OUR SURGEONS
OUR FACILITIES
  • Share this post

Previous Article CYST & PSEUDOCYST OF PANCREAS

© AIMIS 2017-2019 All Rights Reserved. | Site by GetNetty