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KIDNEY CANCER

UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They lie in the lower abdomen on each side of the spine. Their main job is to clean the blood, removing waste products and making urine.

Kidney cancer is a disease in which kidney cells become malignant (cancerous) and grows out of control, forming a tumor.

  • Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults.
    This type of cancer develops from a cell in a kidney tubule, which becomes cancerous (malignant). The cancer grows and forms into a tumour within the kidney. As the tumour grows the affected kidney tends to become larger. In time the tumour may grow through the wall of the kidney and invade nearby tissues and organs, such as the muscles around the spine, the liver, the nearby large blood vessels, etc.

Other less common types of kidney cancer are:

  • Transitional cell (urothelial) cancers are cancers which arise from transitional cells. These are cells which line the renal pelvis, ureters and bladder.
    Transitional cell cancer is common in the bladder but in some cases it develops in the renal pelvis.
  • Wilms' tumour and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney are types of kidney cancer which develop only in children.
UNDERSTANDING WHO SUFFERS

According to National Cancer Institute, kidney and renal pelvis cancer is fairly common compared to other cancers.

Kidney cancer is more common in men (between the age of 40 and 60) than women and among African Americans and American Indian and Alaska Native populations. The number of new cases of kidney and renal pelvis cancer was 15.6 per 100,000 men and women per year based on 2009-2013 cases.

Approximately 1.6 % of men and women will be diagnosed with kidney and renal pelvis cancer at some point during their lifetime, based on 2010-2012 data.

In 2013, there were an estimated 394,336 people living with kidney and renal pelvis cancer in the United States. In 2016, it is estimated that there will be 62,700 new cases.

POTENTIAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Kidney cancer rarely causes signs or symptoms in its early stages. In the later stages, kidney cancer signs and symptoms may include:

  • Blood in the urine, which may appear pink, red or cola colored (haematuria).
  • Pain or discomfort in the side or back of the abdomen (loin pain).
  • A swelling in the area over a kidney.
  • Anaemia, which can cause tiredness.
  • Weight loss
  • Intermittent fever
  • Some renal cell tumours produce abnormal amounts of certain hormones. This can lead to problems such as:
    • A high blood calcium level which can cause various symptoms, such as increased thirst, feeling sick, tiredness, and constipation.
    • Too many red blood cells being made (polycythaemia).
    • High blood pressure (hypertension).
EXAMINATIONS USUALLY REQUIRED

A thorough physical exam combined with a complete health history (past and present medical problems) are needed to confirm kidney cancer.

Certain tests may be done to assist doctors in determining the correct diagnosis. The most common tests that may be ordered include:

  • A CT scan which uses X-rays and a computer to create a series of detailed pictures of the kidneys. This may also require an injection of dye. CT scans have virtually replaced pyelogram and ultrasound as a tool for diagnosing kidney cancer.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which uses strong magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of soft tissues in the body.
  • Ultrasound which uses sound waves to create a picture of the kidneys. It can help tell if a tumor is solid or fluid-filled.
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) involves X-raying the kidneys after the doctor injects a dye that travels to the urinary tract, highlighting any tumors.
  • Urine tests to check for blood in the urine or other signs of problems.
  • Blood tests to show how well the kidneys are working.
  • Renal arteriogram. This test is used to evaluate the blood supply to the tumor. It is not given often, but may help diagnose small tumors. It has other uses, as well.
  • Biopsy Procedure. If, after diagnostic tests are completed, there is a strong clinical suspicion that the kidney mass is cancerous (malignant), surgical removal of the kidney (nephrectomy) will be performed immediately. If the diagnostic test results are not clear, a biopsy may be performed. During a biopsy procedure a small sample of tissue is removed from the mass and examined to determine whether it is benign or malignant.
PROPOSING TREATMENT AND WHY AIMIS

 

There are five different types of treatment for patients with kidney cancer.

  • Surgery (to remove part or the entire kidney).
  • Radiation therapy (high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation are used to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing)
  • Chemotherapy (drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells are used, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing)
  • Biologic therapy (the patient's immune system to fight cancer is used)
  • Targeted therapy (drugs or other substances are used, to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells).

It is important to discuss all treatments and surgical options with a doctor before deciding which is best for each individual situation. Once a doctor confirms the diagnosis, surgery may be needed.

A nephrectomy is the removal of all or part of the kidney. The nephrectomy procedure varies, depending on how the surgery is performed and how much of the kidney is removed.

AIMIS is an expert in Robotic Surgery for Robotic Assisted Nephrectomy involving the best American and International surgeons who are experts in the field.

Research indicates that Partial nephrectomy, or kidney-sparing surgery, is considered the standard of care for clinically appropriate patients as a means to slow the progression of renal failure and reduce the risk of dialysis. Research also demonstrates that those hospitals offering minimally invasive partial nephrectomies utilizing a da Vinci® Surgical System delivered improved patient outcomes.

AIMIS performs the latest techniques in Robotic surgery to ensure the best surgical outcomes and owns the superior da Vinci Xi Robot, the latest in robotics technology.

As a result of da Vinci technology, da Vinci Nephrectomy offers many potential benefits when compared to traditional open surgery or laparoscopic surgery, including:

  • Favourable Operative and pathologic outcomes (more precise removal of cancerous tissue)
  • Tumor resection and reconstruction of the kidney with greater precision
  • High likelihood of kidney preservation, if any
  • Shorter ischemia time better for the renal function
  • Less blood loss
  • Less pain
  • Minimal scarring
  • Lower risk of complications and significantly reduced risk of major complications
  • Shorter hospital stay
  • Faster recovery and return to normal activities

To see the procedures we undertake with Robotic Xi Surgery, please click here

GETTING MORE INFORMATION BEFORE MOVING FORWARD
YOU MAY HAVE QUESTIONS LIKE:
  • Can I get more information before I commit to this?
  • Can I get a second opinion from you before I commit to this?
  • How can I find out the cost before I have any obligation?
WHAT AIMIS CAN DO:

AIMIS will provide a full review, diagnosis and potential surgical options for your condition, after receiving the relevant examinations and information from you. They will also provide an estimate for your surgical procedure before you decide.

AIMIS’ mission is to the provision of “true” healthcare for those who require it. It provides world leading surgeons using state of the art procedures to optimize potential surgical outcomes, whilst taking care of all arrangements so as to allow concentration on recovery.

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AFFORDABILITY

AIMIS provide competitive prices for state of the art procedures. We also work with a large range of Insurance companies where your policy allows you to have surgery abroad.

 

FURTHER INFORMATION ON THE PROBLEM:

There are 4 stages of kidney cancer. The higher the stage, the more advanced the cancer.

  • Stage I: A tumor 7 cm or smaller that is only in the kidney
  • Stage II: A tumor larger than 7 cm that is only in the kidney
  • Stage III:
    • A tumor that is in the kidney and in at least one nearby lymph node
    • A tumor that is in the kidney's main blood vessel and may also be in nearby lymph node
    • A tumor that is in the fatty tissue around the kidney and may also involve nearby lymph nodes
    • A tumor that extends into major veins or perinephric tissues, but not into the ipsilateral adrenal gland and not beyond Gerota's fascia
  • Stage IV:
    • Cancer has spread beyond the fatty layer of tissue around the kidney, and it may also be in nearby lymph nodes
    • Cancer may have spread to other organs, such as the bowel,pancreas, or lungs
    • Cancer has spread beyond Gerota's fascia (including contiguous extension into the ipsilateral adrenal gland)
FURTHER INFORMATION ON INCREASED RISK GROUPS

The following factors appear to increase the risk of kidney cancer:

  • Having certain genetic conditions, such as von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease or inherited papillary renal cell carcinoma
  • Smoking : the risk for kidney cancer is twice that of non-smokers. Smoking cigars may also increase the risk.
  • Age: Kidney cancer occurs most often in people older than age 40.
  • Gender: Men are about twice as likely as women to get kidney cancer.
  • Race: The risk in African American men and women is slightly higher than in whites.
  • Having high blood pressure. It has not been determined whether high blood pressure or the medication used to treat it is the source of the increased risk.
  • Having lymphoma. For an unknown reason, there is an increased risk of kidney cancer in patients with lymphoma.
  • Obesity: Extra weight may cause changes to hormones that increase the risk
  • Misusing certain pain medicines: including over-the-counter pain medicines, for a long time.
  • Occupational exposure: being exposed to certain chemicals, such as asbestos, cadmium, benzene, organic solvents, or certain herbicides.
  • Family history of kidney cancer: The risk is especially high in siblings.
  • Advanced kidney disease: or being on long-term dialysis, a treatment for people with kidneys that have stopped working
FURTHER EXAMINATION THAT MAYBE REQUIRED OR REQUESTED

Further examinations that may be requested are:

  • Bone scan: A bone scan is undertaken to determine if there is any spread of cancer to the bones. It is done by injecting small amounts of a special radioactive material through a vein into the bloodstream. This material is carried to the bone, where it collects in areas where there is a lot of bone activity. The test can identify both cancerous and non-cancerous diseases but the test can’t distinguish between cancer and other conditions such as arthritis when it is used alone. Therefore other tests may be needed, such as x-rays or CT scans.
  • Chest x-ray. A plain x-ray of the chest may be done to see if the cancer has spread to the lungs. If something is seen on the x-ray, the doctor may order a CT scan of the chest to help determine what it is.
  • Angiography. This procedure is used to visualize location and function of arteries. A catheter is usually threaded up a large artery in the leg into an artery leading to the kidney (renal artery). A contrast dye is then injected into the artery to outline blood vessels. Angiography can outline the blood vessels that supply a kidney tumor, which can help a surgeon better plan an operation. Angiography may also help diagnose renal cancers since the blood vessels supplying tumors usually look different than the normal blood supply to the kidney.
WHY AIMIS FOR THIS SURGERY

AIMIS is an expert in Robotic Surgery for Robotic Assisted partial or radical Nephrectomy involving the best American and International surgeons who are experts in the field.

Research indicates that Partial nephrectomy, or kidney-sparing surgery, is considered the standard of care for clinically appropriate patients as a means to slow the progression of renal failure and reduce the risk of dialysis. Research also demonstrates that those hospitals offering minimally invasive partial nephrectomies utilizing a da Vinci® Surgical System delivered improved patient outcomes.

AIMIS performs the latest techniques in Robotic surgery to ensure the best surgical outcomes and owns the superior da Vinci Xi Robot, the latest in robotics technology.

As a result of da Vinci technology, da Vinci Nephrectomy offers many potential benefits when compared to traditional open surgery or laparoscopic surgery, including:

  • Favourable Operative and pathologic outcomes (more precise removal of cancerous tissue)
  • Tumor resection and reconstruction of the kidney with greater precision
  • High likelihood of kidney preservation, if any
  • Shorter ischemia time better for the renal function
  • Less blood loss
  • Less pain
  • Minimal scarring
  • Lower risk of complications and significantly reduced risk of major complications
  • Shorter hospital stay
  • Faster recovery and return to normal activities
OTHER SERVICES PROVIDED BY AIMIS

In addition to its Innovative Healthcare, AIMIS provides seamless service along the way. From the start of your journey you'll know the best flights to take, where you'll be staying, what paperwork you will need. You will have a personal assistant assigned; from your pick up at the airport, to your accommodation, continuous assistance at your pre-consultation, through surgery and in your postsurgical care. Our Patients have said that they feel they have become "part of our family" and some even asked to stay a little longer! AIMIS is here to assist you in an all you requirements, allowing you to focus on your health and recovery.

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